Institute of applied system analysis of NTTU "KPI"
Aim and self-organization. Features of self-organization of social systems
Self-organization of society u2012 the transition to comprehensive public system in one or another way: political, legal, psychological, moral, economic, etc. Distinctive characteristics of such systems is the quest for survival and self-development and active interaction with surroundings that often counteracts and limits their development. It is a process of survival systems, most able to adapt to changes in the environment, i.e. "survival of the fittest". System of inanimate nature samoorganìzovuût′sâ according to laws of nature, biological systems u2012 through the genetic code, and the social system of u2012 through the cultural codes: culture, traditions, morals, experience, intuition, emotions, habits, dreams, desires, etc. Culture DNA social system.
Self-organization of social systems across cultural codes generated by the system as a result of loss of stability of a state. The general pattern of organization is a network pattern - a general pattern of life. With network pattern related to the concept of feedback. If society supports active network connections, it learns from mistakes through feedback and so self-organizing. This means that the dynamics of self-organizing systems aimed at survival and self-preservation, it is difficult to predict the long term. Therefore, social diagnosis, which promotes systems thinking, on important social therapy.
Functioning of the open social systems is an example of the complex phenomena of self-organization, that take place far from equilibrium. Unfortunately, people do not always use their ability for self-organization for interim profit growth, productivity, etc.
Common patterns of self-organization of society as the ratio between social order and social chaos explores social sinergetika u2012 modern concept of the global progress of humanity as a nonlinear process of alternation of order and chaos, and so the social sciences must not give accurate predictions, because people have a freedom of choice and is not similar to the elements of natural systems. They have the ability to understand, think and create.
The result of self-organization should be the emergence of something new, and this new qualitatively different from what it has generated.
The effectiveness of the Organization depends on the interaction between its elements, which can take the form of cooperation, competition, the Coalition conflict, etc. "The problem of the Organization u2012 is a theme of the deep sociological as biological value associated with the theory of the information najtìsnìšimi the knot" (n. Wiener).
Source of self-organization – internal system properties as coordinated, coherent interaction between its elements. System mobilises, self-organizing for resistance zburennâm, when the environment behaves aggressively.
Driving force of self-organization of u2012 desire for self-preservation system changes in the environment; the desire for minimum depending on the environment; culture, desire, knowledge and capabilities as resources of varying nature, traditions, habits, greed, fear, etc.
The problem of self-organizing social systems is the harmonization of its spatial-temporal, material and energy, information and mental connections to achieve the zagal′nosuspìl′noï goals as compelling, credible, specific and real advantages over contemporary State.
The basic conditions of occurrence of effects of self-organization:
• coherence of actions as a result of the presence of the target system;
• openness of the system as a source of resources to the system;
• structure of nonlinear relationships as a mechanism of self-organization system;
• criticality as a "trigger" processes of self-organization.
Main processes of self-organization:
• samonarodžennâ organization, structure, behavior u2012 the emergence of new integrity;
• development of the system as a focused transition to a higher level of integration and differentiation in the process of accumulating experience;
• samopìdtrimka, self-preservation of a certain level of organization and development changes the conditions of operation;
• processes ahead.
Self u2012 systems is the ability to complicate its structure and behavior. The system is capable of creating new structures to change behavior, to learn. For example, science is a system of self-organization, based on simple source principles. Evolution is also implemented through the creation of new structures and types of behaviour. The same can be said about the brain, the genetic code and immune system of the person. Therefore, any political, economic, social, cultural, biological system will die, if not change, evolve, evolve.
Self-organization is associated with the development and progress through the humanitarian society, less likely than modern. Progress can be defined as the transition from the more likely State to a less probable, from the universal to the unique. Accordingly, the disorganization of u2012 more likely the structure or the behavior of the u2012 is the way to chaos, decline, decline, degradation, regression, disintegration, collapse, exactly važnostì that are created spontaneously, by themselves. The closest synonym for self-organization of u2012 development as a move to less likely structures and types of behaviour.
For the system important: elements, structure, links, resources, aim. Everything is connected with everything. For the emergence and implementation of a social phenomenon required the appropriate conditions: availability of purpose, people, resources, money, motivation, etc.
Any system has a goal. The goal of the points system, how it has to act, that is, gives her the job. Therefore, the goal of uniting the system integrity. The goal as a desirable future is critical to the behaviour of the system u2012 it is sistemostvorûûčim factor, and modern is the process of choice. The purpose must be such that all the rest of it is not zat′marilo.
Change the target changes her behavior even if you have all of the same elements. Change of purpose can completely change the system, even if all of its elements and relationships. What is more important in the system of u2012 elements, inter-relationships or goal? It's all important. Everything affects everything. Each component has its own role. But often the least explicit part of the system is its purpose or goal is crucial for behavior determines what it will be. Communication is also critical. Changing interactions usually changes the behavior of the system.
You should not count on success, if not understand the end goal; What is the distance to it, that is, the gap between what is and how it should be; that it is necessary to achieve the goal.
There are three ways of switching (evolution) of past and contemporary to the future: synchronicity, stohastičnìst′, self-organization. Modern and future as two "points", which set the direction of the goal – one of the parameters of the order to which the system should be arranged. This line specifies the path of the future evolution of the system.
But self-organized system cannot evolve in a random direction. Range of areas is determined by the relevant terms and conditions, in which she provides the choice of direction. It is clear that the choice is possible, if there is a set of choices. Her absence means no alternative. Unable to determine the real purpose of the dreamlike State and achieve the desired result. If you are not the way, then all the rest of the case is not zaradit′.
The aim of the system u2012 or trajectory that have certain advantages. The purpose may be independent of the environment; the creation, survival or preservation organizations; education reform, profit, etc. The goal is a prerequisite for the emergence of a system of relations. The aim of the system is determined by its internal paradigm, which turns out to be because of the interests, ideas, opinions, evaluations, stereotypes of behavior and choices, social traditions and values. For example, a system that adheres to the socio-cultural paradigm is the interests of its members. Self-organized system has a number of inherent exactly to her possible directions of development of and the conditions to which it may go.
The problem of the past-the future is connected with the conservative and disipativnìstû systems, i.e. with preservation or transformation. The past persists over time by different people and systems, and future requires the conversion of an existing, i.e. art. It is clear that the creation of the future useful is the experience of the past. These two basic aspects of people require different hierarchies. Here arises the fundamental question: need creativity or not? And this means that articulate the purpose, i.e. to establish a relationship with the future, should people creative. Because you need imagination about the future, that is, intuition. And the logic here is unlikely to help. But when defined goal, the path to the goal and the strategy to achieve it, we need logic for removing obstacles. That's why for social system that wants to grow and samozrostati, it is advisable to have at the top level of the hierarchy of a person, group of people or a system that can anticipate, predict, identify and realize that their function in the form PV ʼ relations with the future, i.e. According to the modern from the future as a new feature.
Links the past and the present and the future – experience – forecast predetermine choice – promote coherence of action, which is the result of the functioning of the backs of different nature: space-time (link generations experience ...), mental (faith in the future, the idea of God, ...), material and energy (we live in the real world) and, of course, information.
Consistency of action based on common goals and strategies to achieve it in the transition from simple to sophisticated behavior is the result of the operation of the feedback at various levels of the social hierarchy. The wording of the purpose of the communication system as the present and the future, the definition of strategies to achieve goals and forecasts u2012 this is the top level of the system hierarchy. In this regard, note that the habit of u2012 sign of the disappearance of the goals, such as getting used to the deterioration of living conditions, lowering her standards. The same is, for example, a habit to concentrate attention on the gross national income, which does not take into account health, quality education, wisdom, joy, talanovitìst′, that is something for which the people live. Habit of u2012 stereotype thinking like a protorena track, which the more driving, the resilient and easier it becomes.
The goal and the path to the goal define intuition, creativity, creativity. The lack of goals has created an unexpected chaotic state policy of Ukraine with serious consequences for society.
It is obvious that the presence of creative personalities and structures, able to articulate the purpose of the system and create a strategy to achieve it, is necessary for the development of society. Purpose defines the foresight and ability determines the means to achieve it. Purposeful u2012 the ability of the system to achieve a particular result in certain internal and external conditions and in the presence of certain resources.
The three fundamental values of the individual and society:
• objective (how to change the life to be happy);
• common sense (in the direction of the goal).
The value of u2012 our imagination, as should be in life. The principles of u2012 rules that determine behavior.
The public system has external environment, with which it is linked via the extreme conditions u2012 two-way flows of material, energy, information and other resources. Limited resources (educated people, technology, fuel, materials, etc.) is a common situation of the existence of the society and is not a "problem", as it is often always positive. The problem is, where and how to find resources.
Our world is nonlinear. Nonlinearity of u2012 the ambiguity, the availability of high-quality changes, the ability to change the rules of the game, delays, lack of clear borders. The notion of the nonlinearity is a useful metaphor for system analysis, because the content itself of the process of thinking as yet little understood even at an intuitive level.
As long as there is a difference between modern and desirable future, backlinks (nonlinear) links will move the system towards the desired state. Signs of non-linearity of the system: the presence of a set of choice; a sudden avtokatalìtičnì change type "explosion", which corresponds to the modern philosophical concept of States and sudden changes; frequency; neperedbačenìst′ (which creates the need to forecast); inadequacy; restrictions, such as ... moral u2012 discipline of humanity "(Points); samozbudžennâ; hysteresis (on background); resonance (aggravation); induction (the interaction between braking and excitation, which is expressed in the fact that the occurrence of one of the phenomenon causes the development of another, opposite); Acceleration; being late; advance (action ahead of the curve in need of an idea about the future), etc. This is a situation where processes are realized for the following values of parameters to describe the desired nonlinear model.
Nonlinear reaction-dependence of the results from the experience, skill, intuition, luck, chance, etc. The relationships are of critical importance, because their change changes the behavior of the system.
In nonlinear systems, minor disturbance may cause extremely strong (non-linear) effect. Creation, self-analysis and self-control of the consequences of the actions of non-linear relationships between the elements of the system as the implementation of their functions is a prerequisite of the phenomenon of self-organization. So, regulatory processes to create feedbacks – non-linear interactions that contribute to the development and growth of the elements most necessary for the preservation of the system (for example, the activity is aimed at the intensification of work, adapting to the changing conditions of existence, the creation of new technologies as catalysts production etc.).
Non-linearity of the system means an unpredictable reaction to disturbance. In the nonlinear world of precise prediction is usually impossible. In the presence of nonlinearity of the forecasts of the development of the system lose long-term: the reason one – the consequences are different. Because the dynamics of nonlinear systems in the long term is difficult to predictable.
In linear systems, new properties does not occur for any disturbances and changes remain to be quantitative. Linear behavior is universal, repeating, and nonlinear is unique, diverse. The transition from the universal to the unique and there is progress – a transition from the more probable condition less likely. It is non-linearity and non-equilibrium constraints create a set of solutions and types of behaviour.
The quality and reality of the decisions depends on the level of the previous analysis of the situation. The decision must be assessed financial, ethical, moral, legal, political, etc. Decision no assessment is a principled intellectual error. Often make decisions based on rationality, that is, logic through the use of "linear" means consideration. But there is an intuitive, irrational, which is associated with creativity, feelings, symbols, descriptive images and imaginary paintings, that is, "non-linear" means to achieve the goal.
Thus, the consequence and result-oriented self-organization system should be to reach the target. Decent human self organized society can long exist only in case if each acts in such a way as if it were within their own activities is responsible for the whole.